Area's First Residents
Americans ply the waters in their tule boat. Tule rushes were both waterproof and
lightweight, making them a good choice for baskets, roofs, shoes and sleeping mats.
(Source: C.L. Keyworth, "California Indians").
Above right: A shellmound near present-day Richmond rises in the field in front of Albany Hill. Some 425 shellmounds once surrounded San Francisco Bay. (Source: Malcolm Margolin, "The Ohlone Way")
Right: Some findings of shells and bones during the 1935 excavation of the Emeryville Shellmound. According toMalcolm Margolin in his book "The Ohlone Way", "Early archeologists hoped to unearth objects of great rarity and beauty which would grace the major museums of the world. Instead the shellmounds of the Bay Area surrendered only clam shells, bits of mortars and pestles, stone arrowheads bone awls and human skeletons."
Native Americans began populating the area we know today as the
East Bay about 5,000 years ago. The Ohlone tribe hunted along creeks in the hills of
Oakland and the surrounding towns.